Preventing and Reversing Heart Disease
Chapter 39. Heart Disease, Ascorbate, Lysine and Linus Pauling
Steam Roller is Not Joking
I once had a conversation with a cardiologist friend
of mine in which I casually mentioned the Linus Pauling Theory of heart
disease, and the idea that non-toxic nutritional supplements such as vitamin C
and two amino acids could prevent and reverse heart disease. The response from my cardiologist friend was
hearty laughter that anyone would even suggest such a nonsensical idea, and
surely you must be joking? My
cardiologist friend and the rest of the mainstream medical system has no clue
about the steamroller coming to health care aimed at the huge profits from
diagnosis and treatment of heart disease, a multibillion dollar industry in the
US. The Cardiac Catheterization Lab and
Cardiac Bypass Surgery Programs will be flattened, the first casualties of the
internet revolution, providing information about a safe and cheap program of
nutritional supplements to reverse heart disease, the Linus Pauling
Protocol. Time has come for the old
dinosaurs to go. In the near future,
thanks to Linus Pauling, heart disease will become a curiosity of the past,
like the disappearance of gastric ulcers after the invention of antacids and
Linus Pauling Protocol - Vitamin C
C Deficiency Has Major Impact on Collagen Production
Ascorbate, also called Vitamin C, is required to
make a protein called collagen which is the major component of connective
tissues. The lack of Vitamin C is a
deficiency disease called Scurvy. Why is Collagen Important? Collagen is the most abundant protein in the
body. Collagen is the structural
protein used to make connective tissues, bones, teeth, hair, and arteries. Strong collagen is important for a strong
body. Basic medical science tells us that
Vitamin C is required for strong collagen.
How does this work? Vitamin C is required for lysyl hydroxylase, an
enzyme responsible for attaching the lysine residues together on adjacent
collagen strands. (38) Vitamin C deficiency results in weakened collagen
strands caused by disrupted lysine cross linking. The resulting weakened
collagen results in widespread problems in the connective tissues, bones,
teeth, skin, hair, arteries, etc. (35, 38, 39,42)
Blown Scurvy - Collagen Falls Apart
In the full blown Vitamin C deficiency disease
called Scurvy, the structural elements of the body literally fall apart. Collagen is broken down and not replaced. The
joints wear out, the small arteries begin to crack and degenerate, the skin
shows easy bruising and bleeding as small vessels rupture throughout the body,
and the teeth may loosen and fall
Pauling: Heart Disease is a Chronic Scurvy Condition
Linus Pauling was unquestionably the greatest
scientist of the twentieth century. All of modern biochemistry and molecular
biology chemistry is based on Linus Pauling's work, especially his discovery
and elucidation of the chemical bond.
Pauling is the only scientist to be awarded two unshared Nobel prizes. Pauling's later years were devoted to study
of heart disease, and in 1989 he published "A Unified Theory of Human
Cardiovascular Disease,” in which he states that atherosclerotic plaques in
heart disease are actually part of a repair process, to repair the arterial
damage caused by chronic vitamin C deficiency. (15) In essence, Pauling said that heart disease is
a manifestation of chronic scurvy, and atherosclerotic plaque is a mechanism
evolved to repair or patch blood vessels and arteries damaged by chronic
vitamin C deficiency. Linus Pauling also
said that atherosclerotic plaque formation can be prevented or reversed with
vitamin C, lysine and proline. These are
nutritional supplements available at any health food store for a few dollars.
Plaques Found at Maximal Mechanical Stress
Atherosclerotic plaques are not found randomly
distributed throughout the arterial tree, rather distribution is restricted to
sites of high mechanical stress such as bifurcations, and areas of motion such
as the surface of the heart (coronary arteries). In the early 1950's, a
Canadian, G. C. Willis, MD, made these same observations, and they have been
confirmed by 60 years of coronary and peripheral arteriography at major medical
Lysine Crosslinks from Damaged Collagen is Site of LipoProtein (a) attachment
and Plaque Formation
Imagine stepping on your garden hose a thousand
times a day. You will soon notice cracks
in the wall of the garden hose. This is
the same process that happens in the artery.
As these cracks open up, the collagen strands in the wall of the artery
are teased apart. The collagen strands
are normally bound together with lysine crosslinks which are now teased apart
and exposed to the circulating blood stream.
The Lysine residues look like little flags waving from the damaged
collagen strand. The exposed Lysine
strands are available for binding to circulating Lipoprotein (a), a special
form of cholesterol that has lysine receptors, and is known to increase heart
disease risk. This attachment of
lipoprotein (a) to the free lysine residues of damaged collagen initiates the
atherosclerotic process. Over time, this
process builds larger plaque deposits which eventually narrow the inner
diameter of the artery causing a blockage, or leads to plaque rupture and
thrombosis, a catastrophic event which may cause heart attack or sudden
death. Animal experiments in genetically
modified "knocked out" mice
with no lysine binding sites on lipoprotein (a) show a fivefold reduction in
atherosclerotic plaque formation.(50-51)
Make Vitamin C , But You Can't
We humans cannot make vitamin C in our liver as all
other animals do. We humans had a
genetic mutation in our ancestry 50 million years ago which "knocked
out" the final enzyme in the hepatic synthesis of vitamin C. The missing enzyme is called GLO (gulano
lactone oxidase). Primates such as
gorillas, chimpanzees and orangutans also share this same GLO mutation and
cannot make vitamin C. In addition, all primates share with us humans the same susceptibility
to develop heart disease.
Animals Can Make Vitamin C, but the Guinea Pig Can't
Except for humans and primates, all other animals
have the three enzymes in the liver which can synthesize vitamin C from glucose
(a simple sugar). One major exception is the guinea pig, which is really a
rodent and not a pig. The guinea pig,
for some unexplained reason, shares with humans the GLO genetic mutation and
also lacks the GLO enzyme just like we do.
This makes the guinea pig an ideal experimental model for human diseases. By the way, although animals that make
vitamin C never get heart disease, the guinea pig which lacks the ability to
synthesize vitamin C, DOES GET HEART
That Make Vitamin C, Don't Get
Atherosclerotic Heart Disease
I thought this was worth repeating. (note: here I am
referring to atherosclerotic vascular heart disease in animals. Dogs and Cats DO succumb to other common types of heart disease such as
cardiomyopathy and heart worm etc.)
That Don't Make Vitamin C, Do Get Atherosclerotic Heart Disease
This should be starting to become clear now.
Scientific Support for the Pauling Unified Theory
As mentioned above, guinea pigs are especially well
suited to study atherosclerosis because guinea pigs are unable to make their
own vitamin C, and in addition, they develop atherosclerotic plaques similar to
those found in humans. G. C. Willis, a
Canadian doctor, conducted research with guinea pigs in the 1950's showing that
guinea pigs deprived of dietary vitamin C developed atherosclerotic plaques,
while guinea pigs given plentiful vitamin C were protected. (52) In addition, guinea pigs fed a vitamin C
deficient diet had elevated Lipoprotein (a) levels along with increased
atherosclerotic plaque formation in the arteries. (53)
Similar findings were demonstrated in genetically
engineered mice lacking the GLO enzyme. The GLO deficient mice fed a vitamin C
deficient diet developed atherosclerotic plaques in the aorta with
characteristic deranged collagen crosslinking. GLO deficient mice fed vitamin C
were protected. (38)(54)
Studies Supporting the Linus Pauling Theory
Optometrist, Dr. Sydney Bush's retinal artery
observations support the Pauling theory.
Using modern equipment to non-invasively photograph the retinal arteries
of the eye before and after Vitamin C supplementation in humans, Dr. Bush has
documented reversal of atherosclerotic plaque with Vitamin C supplementation. (54)
Coronary Calcium Score studies also
support the Pauling Theory with favorable results after treatment with Vitamin
C and Lysine. (55) Anecdotal case
evidence of reversal of heart disease can be found in the medical literature
and documented in Owen Fonorow's book.(56)
In these cases, advanced heart disease regresses after supplementation
with the Linus Pauling Protocol. This is
highly significant because the natural course of heart disease is progression,
and any intervention that alters the natural course of a disease process is
Message boards are a source of anecdotal cases reports
supporting the Linus Pauling Protocol.
The Track Your Plaque Message Boards have documented many cases of
regression of atherosclerotic disease with protocols which include vitamin C as
well as other nutritional supplements. (58) Why no drug company sponsored
double blind placebo controlled studies? Since there are no patents involved
for natural supplements, and no drugs involved, no drug company would ever
invest the 250 million dollars to fund such a study with no potential for
Physician's Health Study - Don't Waste Your Money On Vitamins!!
Using public funds, the NIH (National Institute of
Health) funded a large study called The Physicians' Health Study II which
evaluated Vitamins C and E in heart disease and was published Nov. 9, 2008 in
JAMA by Howard D. Sesso.(59) The study
found that Vitamin C and E did not prevent mortality from heart disease;
results which are completely opposite to massive previously published research
and anecdotal case reports. A closer
look shows a few glaring errors in study design. The Linus Pauling Protocol was not
followed. The dosage of vitamin C was
set too low, at one tenth the dosage recommended by the Linus Pauling protocol,
and lysine was not provided. While the
Sesso study showed no mortality benefit, many previous studies such as the
Enstrom Study showed a striking a 42% reduction in cardiovascular mortality and
a 35% reduction in all-cause mortality over 6 years for those with the highest
vitamin C intake. (60) The Paul Knecht study showed a 25% reduction
in Heart Disease risk with daily 700 mg Vitamin C.(61) Two medical studies from Japan and Finland
showed that Vitamin C reduces risk for stroke, an example of atherosclerosis involving the
cerebral arteries.(62-63) There are many
more like these.
Since favorable results would be financially
destructive to the drug and hospital industries, a cynic might suggest that
vested interests were at work in Sesso's study intending to discredit vitamin C
(as documented many times in the past with examples of corporate influence in
medical research). It is not difficult
to design a medical study to fail. I
regard this as merely another example of the information war waged by corporate
mainstream medicine against natural medicine.
Enstrom showed that increasing vitamin C intake had a dramatic 40%
reduction in mortality benefit which exceeds any statin drug study ever
Pauling Protocol for Prevention and Reversal of Plaque
If heart disease is chronic scurvy, caused by chronic
vitamin C deficiency, then it makes sense to supplement with vitamin C in the
amounts needed to make strong collagen and prevent arterial damage from
mechanical stress. In addition, Pauling
devised a clever yet simple method to address the issue of Lipoprotein (a)
attaching to the lysine residues on the damaged collagen fibers in the arterial
wall. He recommended supplementing with
2-4 grams of lysine per day. The
additional lysine in the blood stream attaches to the receptor sites on the
lipoprotein (a) molecules, inactivating the lipoprotein (a) and preventing it
from attaching to the arterial wall.
This prevents the initiation of the atherosclerotic process. In addition, Vitamin C and Lysine are both
important precursors for building strong collagen which makes strong
arteries. In addition to Lysine, some of
the collagen crosslinking is done with another amino acid called Proline, so
proline was also added to the treatment protocol.
A good book on the Linus Pauling protocol is “Practicing
Medicine Without a License”, by Owen Fonorow, dedicated to the 1992 Linus Pauling Protocol
for prevention and reversal of heart disease.(64-66) Another excellent book on the subject of
Vitamin C and heart disease is, “Stop America's #1 Killer”, by Thomas Levy MD,
JD.(67) Another excellent resource for
prevention and reversal of heart disease is the William Davis MD, “Track Your
Plaque” blog and web site.(58)
is the Linus Pauling Protocol?
Protocol for Prevention and Reversal of Heart Disease
L-Ascorbate (Vitamin C) 5-6 grams a day in divided
L-Lysine 5 grams a day in divided doses
L-Proline 2-3 grams a day in divided doses
The Tocotrienol form of Vitamin E.
These supplements can be obtained at any the health food store as tablets or
capsules for 40 to 50 dollars a month.
to the Linus Pauling Protocol by Mainstream Medicine
If you are facing the prospects of coronary artery
bypass surgery, you might ask the obvious question: Why hasn't my cardiologist
told me about this information and started me on the Linus Pauling
Protocol? Most cardiologists either
don't know about it or ignore it because of the information war going on
between mainstream medicine and natural medicine. Cardiologists read medical journals which
regularly run incorrect and biased articles saying Vitamin C is useless for
prevention and reversal of heart disease, such as the 2008 Sesso study. Diagnosing and treating heart disease with
expensive tests and procedures such as coronary angiography, angioplasty,
stenting and bypass operations is the most profitable part of hospital big
business. That's why hospitals compete
and fight with each other over the rights to expand and build larger cardiac
cath labs and cardiac bypass operation programs. These programs are huge money makers for the
national hospital system.
What would happen if there was a cheap and effective
way to reverse and prevent heart disease, (ie. the Linus Pauling
Protocol)? Heart disease would become an
uncommon illness. With fewer heart
patients to treat, the multi-million dollar cardiac catheter labs and cardiac
bypass programs at your local hospital would become obsolete and
disappear. This would be a financial
catastrophe for mainstream medicine.
More Construction Cranes?
With so much money and vested interest at stake, you
can imagine why it is not prudent for a cardiologist to bring up the benefits
of the Linus Pauling Protocol in friendly conversation while lunching in the
Doctor's Dining Hall. That would be an
instant ticket off the medical staff roster and out the hospital door, and the
end of a lucrative cardiology practice.
What cardiologist in their right mind would do that? It is easier for the mainstream cardiologists
to simply laugh it off as a joke and go back to the Cardiac Catheter Lab, do
more procedures and make some money to pay their bills. I certainly would.
I have no financial interest in any Vitamin C products, books or web sites
mentioned in this article. For
references and links, see my web site: www.bioidenticalhormones101.com
for Chapter 39. Heart Disease, Ascorbate, Lysine and Linus Pauling
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Stop America's #1 Killer by Thomas E. Levy, MD, JD (2006)
Bioidentical Hormones 101 by author dr dach. jeffrey dach md